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 The Toltecs 




Toltec Atlantean columns of the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuthli (the Lord of dawn) the roof of the temple were supported by these columns, at the tula ceremonial center




When Teotihuacan was powerful, it acted as a buffer between the cultures of the Valley of Mexico and the nomadic peoples to the north .With its downfall, nomadic warriors entered the area from the north .There were many groups in this northern area, known collectively as Chichimecs ' People of the Dog Lineage .'

friezes of  a jaguar at the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuthli (the Lord of dawn)


The most powerful of these were the Toltecs, who probably originated in southern Zacateacas .At the beginning of the 10th century, a great Toltec leader known as Mixcoatl ( Cloud Serpent ) who conquered many cities in the valley and set up his capital at Culhuacan . Mixcoatl was murdered by his brother, who assumed control . Mixcoatl's pregnant wife fled into exile and gave birth to a son names Ce Acatl Topiltzin who would become an important hero in ancient Mexico .The boy became a priest of Quetzacoatl and attaining manhood gathered about them those still loyal to his father and killed his father in single combat and made himself ruler of the Toltecs . Around 968 A.D.. he moved his capital to the frontier and founded the city of Tula .


Coyote helmet with warrior's head, mother of pearl inlay


There is debate as to whether the Toltects were an individual culture or a product of Aztec myth . Tradition assumes the "Toltec empire" to have dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD with their capital at Tula, north-west of Mexico city .Tula was the largest in central Mexico in the 9th and 10th centuries the toltecs were regarded with awe by succedding cultures of the Mayans and Aztecs and regarded as the source of artistic skill.








Zapotecs and Mixtec




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